Myxedema is an endocrine disease that is associated with a situation where organs and tissues cannot be fully supplied with thyroid hormones. Myxedema is essentially an extreme form of hypothyroidism (acquired) in adults (in children, an extreme form of hypothyroidism (may be congenital) is called cretinism).
Hypothyroidism is a state of the body (hypothyroidism is not a disease as such) when there is a long-term lack of thyroid secretion products in it. Hypothyroidism is caused either by functional insufficiency of the thyroid tissue, when it is not able to produce the required amount of hormones), or with certain pathological processes that, to some extent, affect hormonal metabolism. One of the reasons for the development of myxedema is associated with inflammatory processes in the thyroid gland.
Myxedema is caused by inflammatory lesions of the thyroid gland. Inaccurate statement. Not only inflammatory, but also tumor, as well as autoimmune lesions of this organ. In addition, this disease can be caused by the introduction of radioactive iodine, with the malfunctioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary system. Myxedema can result from surgery on the thyroid gland.
Drowsiness is one of the symptoms of myxedema. The patient may also experience pallor and dry skin. There may be signs of swelling on the limbs and face (there is swelling of the skin and subcutaneous tissue). The patient's hair becomes brittle, their loss is noted. A frequent occurrence with myxedema is a decrease in blood pressure and a slowdown in the pulse. In children, a decrease in mental abilities is often observed with myxedema disease. Less serious neuropsychiatric disorders are common. These include, for example, a bad mood. As a result of myxedema disease, memory impairment can be observed. As for thyroid hormones, laboratory data show a decrease in their amount in the blood serum.
Myxedema is divided into several types. Usually there are two types of this disease. The first type is thyroid myxedema, which can be congenital. So acquired. Congenital myxedema appears as a result of intrauterine infection of the fetus or the presence of defects in it. Acquired myxedema develops as a result of injury to the thyroid gland or as a result of some previous diseases. The hypothalamic-pituitary myxedema is a consequence of the abnormal functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary system. In particular, this concerns the violation of the synthesis of thyroid-stimulating hormone.
Primary hypothyroidism is more common in women. It really is. For hypothyroidism, drowsiness, memory loss, and slowness are characteristic. A person gets tired quickly (even after a little work done), his performance also decreases. The voice becomes hoarse. The body temperature is low. It should be understood that a person with primary hypothyroidism (which is triggered by an autoimmune disorder) may have primary insufficiency of other peripheral endocrine glands. We are talking about the adrenal glands, pancreas, parathyroid glands.
Substitution therapy is the mainstay of myxedema treatment. Substitution therapy is prescribed for life and includes taking thyroid medications. These are thyroxine, thyroidin, triiodothyronine, as well as combined drugs. These include thyroid, thyroid forte, thyrocomb.
The term "myxedema" has been in use since the nineteenth century. That is how in 1878 VM Ord called the state of mucous edema of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. However, the term "myxedema" is currently used to define severe forms of hypothyroidism. Although, as you know, mucous edema is characteristic of hypothyroidism.